CANCER: Symptoms,Causes, Early Detection,Prevention Best Guide in 2023


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, killing nearly 10 million people or one in six deaths in 2020.
The most common cancers are breast, lung, colon, rectum and prostate.
Nearly one-third of  tumor cases are caused by smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, low fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity.

Approximately 30% of  tumor cases in low- and middle-low-income countries are caused by  tumor such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and hepatitis.
Many  tumor are curable if detected early and treated appropriately.



Cancer is the umbrella of a large group of diseases that can affect any part of the body. Other terms used are malignancy and neoplasm. The main point of  tumor is the rapid production of malignant cells that go beyond their normal limits and can enter the peripheral parts of the body and spread to other organs; The second process is called metastasis. Extensive metastasis is the leading cause of cancer.


Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide, killing about 10 million people in 2020 (1).
Most common (in terms of new  tumor cases) in 2020:

cases of breast cancer (2.26 million cases);
lungs (2.21 million patients);
abdominal pain (1.93 million patients);
prostates (1.41 million patients)
skins (non-melanoma) (1.
20 million patients); and
stomachs (1.09 million patients).
The most common causes of  tumor in 2020 are:

Lung cancer (1.8 million deaths);
Colon and rectum (916,000 deaths);
Liver (830 000 deaths);
Gastrointestinal diseases (769 deaths); and 0.
breast cancer (685 000 deaths).
Almost 400,000 children are analyzed with  tumor each year.

Cancer rates often vary by country. Cervical  tumor is the most common cancer in 23 countries.


Cancer results from the transformation of normal cells into neoplastic cells, often in a variety of processes ranging from precancerous cells to malignant tumors. These changes are caused by a person’s genes associated with three groups of other factors, such as:

Body carcinogens such as ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation;

Chemical carcinogens such as asbestos, tobacco smoke products, alcohol, aflatoxins (a food contamination) and arsenic (dirty drinking water); and biological diseases such as certain viruses, bacteria or parasitic diseases.
Carcinogens are classified by WHO through the  tumor research organization International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

The incidence of  tumor increases with age, most likely because the risk of some  tumor increases with age. As a person ages, the accumulation of all risks is compounded by the decreasing trend of cellular repair mechanisms.

Risk Factors

Smoking, drinking alcohol, malnutrition, physical inactivity and air pollution are causes of  tumor and other infectious diseases.

Some chronic diseases cause  tumor ; this is a particular problem in low- and middle-income countries. About 13% of  tumor diagnosed worldwide in 2018 were due to oncogenic bacteria, including Helicobacter pylori, human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and Epstein-Barr disease (2).

Hepatitis B and C and some types of HPV increase the risk of liver and breast  tumor, respectively. HIV infection increases the risk of cervical  tumor sixfold and increases the risk of certain  tumor , such as Kaposi’s sarcoma.

Reducing the burden

Currently, 30% to 50% of  tumor can be prevented by avoiding risks and following evidence-based prevention strategies. The burden of  tumor can also be reduced by early detection of  tumor and appropriate treatment and follow-up of cancer patients. Many cancers are curable if detected early and treated correctly.


Cancer risk can be reduced by:
not smoking tobacco; holds
body weight; Eat a healthy diet, including
fruits and vegetables;
received regular physical activity; Avoid UV protection
(only due to sun exposure and artificial energy sources). and/or use sunscreen;

Ensuring safe and appropriate use in radiation therapy (for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes);
Reduce occupational exposure to ionizing radiation;
Reduce outdoor and indoor air pollution, including Radon (a radioactive gas produced by the natural decay of uranium that can be found in buildings – buildup at home, school and workplace).

Early detection
Cancer cases can be reduced if detected and treated early. Early diagnosis has two components: early detection and screening.

Early Detection

When detected early,  tumor can be more treatable and lead to higher survival rates, lower morbidity, and lower treatment costs. By catching  tumor early and preventing delays in care, the lives of  tumor patients can be greatly improved.

Early detection has three aspects: understanding the symptoms of different types of  tumor and the importance of seeking treatment when abnormalities are found; Access to
clinical examinations and diagnosis;
refers to timely medical services.

Early detection of  tumor symptoms applies to all areas and most  tumor.  tumor programs should be designed to minimize delays and barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and support.


The purpose of screening is to identify people with detectable signs of  tumor or precancerous conditions before the patient is diagnosed. When abnormalities are found during the examination, additional tests are required to confirm the diagnosis, and referral for treatment should be made if  tumor is present.
Screening tests are effective for some, but not all types of  tumor , and are often more difficult and costly than early detection becauseTreatment

Because each type of  tumor requires specific treatment, an accurate diagnosis of  tumor is important for appropriate and effective treatment. Treatment usually includes surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy (chemotherapy, hormone therapy, targeted biological therapy). Choosing the right treatment must be decided between the cancer and the person being treated. Completing the treatment within the specified time is important to achieve the desired treatment.

Identifying treatment goals is an important first step.

The main goal is usually to cure  tumor or prolong life.Progressing the quality of life of patients is additionally an critical objective
. This can be achieved by supporting patients’ physical, emotional and mental health and palliative care in advanced stages of  tumor.

Some of the most common types of  tumor , such as breast, cervical, mouth and colon  tumor , can be cured if detected early and treated according to best practices.

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