Allergy symptoms, Types Best Guide in 2023


Allergy of the body to foreign substances (antigens) that do not harm the body of other people with the same substance and condition.
Antigens that cause allergic reactions are called allergens. Allergens include pollen, chemicals, feathers, bacteria, food, and dyes or chemicals. The immune system normally has many mechanisms that protect the body from antigens. Chief among these are lymphocytes, cells that specialize in responding to certain antigens.

  • There are two types of lymphocytes – B cells and T cells. B cells produce antibodies, which are proteins that bind and destroy or neutralize antibodies. T cells do not produce antibodies; instead, they bind directly to antigens and stimulate the attack of antigens. Anaphylaxis can have immediate or delayed effects, depending on whether the antigen elicits a B-cell or T-cell response.
  • Direct reaction allergies are caused by antibody-antigen .That is, they are products of B cell stimulation).These can be partitioned into three essential sorts.

Type I

Antibodies, including hay fever, poison allergy, and asthma, belong to a class of antibodies called immunoglobulin E (IgE). IgE molecules bind to mast cells in loose tissue.

  • When enough antigen binds to IgE antibodies, mast cells release granules of histamine and heparin and produce other chemicals such as leukotrienes. These powerful drugs irritate the nerves and irritate the bronchial tubes.
  • Histamine is responsible for the obvious symptoms of allergies such as runny nose, wheezing and swollen tissues. A severe, often fatal, allergic reaction is called anaphylaxis. A person’s susceptibility to type I is a genetic decision.
  • The best defense against this type of allergy is to avoid exposure to harmful chemicals. Antihistamines are often used to temporarily relieve symptoms. Another important measure is desensitization, which increases the amount of antigen injected over time until the patient is no longer allergic.

Type II

  • Antibodies occur when antibodies react with antigens on certain “target” cells. Antigens can be natural products of healthy cells or foreign substances caused by drugs or infectious diseases.
  • The resulting antigen-antibody complex activates the complement system, a set of potent enzymes that destroy target cells.

Type III

Antibody occurs when a person sensitive to an antigen is subsequently exposed to that antibody. In type III antibodies, antigen-antibody complexes accumulate on the walls of small blood vessels. Then the complex will increase in the body, causing pain and vascular damage. Unlike Type I responses, Type II and III responses are not due to genetic predisposition.
Remember that allergies are the best defense against this vaccine.

Prolonged or type IV immune reactions are caused by activation of T cells, which takes longer to accumulate on the surface of antibodies than for B cell antibodies. Anaphylaxis develops 12 to 24 hours or more after exposure to the appropriate antigen. A slow allergic reaction is called dermatitis, a skin condition. Transplant rejection is also T cell mediated and can therefore be considered a delayed immune response.

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